Comprehensive Guide for the Specification of Welded Wire Reinforcement
ACI 318-19: Quick Fact: A Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement (WWR) Primer
- ACI 318-19: TABLE 18.104.22.168(a) – Deformed Wire and Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement
TF 101-R-14: Historical Data on Wire, Triangular Wire Fabric/ Mesh and Welded Wire Concrete Reinforcement (WWR) 2014, 9 pages
This tech fact will give guidance to design professionals, contractors and building/bridge owners on the physical and mechanical properties of older wire and wire mesh and welded wire reinforcement. There are references to ASTM standards that give structural properties used in the 1900s to the 1960s and a table of wire gages with diameters, areas, and weights listed. An example table is included on the nomenclature of triangular wire used in the early 1900s. In addition, a story on the history of wire, wire mesh and WWR for concrete reinforcement and a statement on "This Modern Era" - or where the WRI industry is today.
TF100-R-06: Men of Steel 1980, Updated 2006, 26 pages
The story of Welded Wire Reinforcement and the Wire Reinforcement Institute in honor of the 50th anniversary.
WWR-400-R-03: Bending Welded Wire Reinforcement 1999, 12 pages
A pictorial and descriptive publication on the fabrication of either in-plant or on-site bending of welded wire for column cages, beam baskets, and shear reinforcement for both cast in place and precast/prestressed structural components.
WWR-500-R-16: Manual of Standard Practice--Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement 2016
This manual provides current product information, material specifications, and properties, and lists current ACI 318 Code provisions relating to WWR. Tables and design aids are included on splicing and areas of cross sections for various wire spacings. Two new sections cover testing of wire and welded wire reinforcement, as well as handling and placing guidelines.
WWR-600: Structural Detailing Manual 2006, 10 chapters have been updated and case studies and tech facts have been included.
Members only - Contact a WRI Producer Member
This manual may be used for detailing guidance on welded wire reinforcement in one-way and two-way slabs, precast/prestressed concrete, column & beam detailing, cast-in-place walls, and slabs-on-ground. Sections also cover ACI 318 provisions and shortcuts to compare areas of high strength WWR with areas of mild reinforcing.
A Sample Specification for Welded Wire Reinforcement (WWR) 2018, 6 pages
We have had many requests for an example of a Sample Specification that design and construction professionals may review when preparing their own construction documents. This is a sample specification prepared by an engineer with a WRI member producer. (Please review the WRI Disclaimer attached at the end of the document.)
WRI Tech Facts
TF 202-R-18: How to Specify, Order & Use Welded Wire Reinforcement in Residential & Light Commercial Construction - Updated 2018 - 8 pages
A comprehensive publication that answers many questions on specifications and nomenclature on wire sizes and styles for ordering information. It also has guidelines on placing and supporting WWR. There are numerous examples, data tables, and photos.
TF 204-R-14: Welded Wire Reinforced Tilt-up Panels 2014, 5 pages
This Tech Fact is an educational tool for welded wire reinforced tilt-up wall construction.
TF 205-R-18: Welded Wire Fabric in Concrete Pan Joist Slab Construction 1993, First Printing, 2 pages
An informative publication referencing the advantages of welded wire reinforcement (WWR) in both one-way and two-way pan joist construction. Addresses minimum steel requirements, spacing, design considerations, ACI Building Code specifications, and the use of high strength structural WWR.
TF 206-R-14: Metric Welded Wire Reinforcement Updated 2014
Third Printing 5 pages Converting U.S. Equivalent Customary (in-pound) styles to Metric styles. A discussion and examples of soft conversion technique.
TF 207-R-09: Provisions in ACI 318 for Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement 1999,
First Printing, 9 pagesThis Tech Fact contains key ACI 318 code provisions concerning wire and welded wire reinforcement for reinforced concrete. The reference can be used as a guide for design expressions, approved ASTM material references, and commentary to assist in design and writing specifications. The Tech Fact may be inserted in the WRI Structural Detailing Manual -Section 1- and will be updated as future codes are published.
TF 208-R-08: (D) Structural High Strength Welded Wire Reinforcement - Current Product Knowledge 2008, 3rd Printing, 7 pages
This Tech Fact describes current manufacturing abilities, applicable specifications, and nomenclature, handling and unloading, placing to obtain proper positioning, coated WWR, and metrication. Tables are included to make it easier for converting units and knowing what common styles are produced and determining areas of steel for various wire spacings.
TF 209-R-08: Design Aids For Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement (includes WWR/Rebar Comparison Tables) 2008, 2nd Printing, 14 pages
This issue contains lists of ASTM & AASHTO Standards that apply to wire and WWR. Also ASTM physical properties for minimum yield and tensile strengths and minimum weld shear strength criteria. There are examples using the included 4 sets of tables. The tables compare various spacings of rebar at 60 ksi yield strength with various spacings of WWR at 60, 70, 75, and 80 ksi yield strengths.
TF 209-R-08M: Metric: Design Aids For Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement (includes WWR/Rebar Comparison Tables) 2008, 2nd Printing, 14 pages
This issue is a metric-centered version of TF 209-R-08.
TF 306-R-10: (D) Welded Wire Reinforcement for Circular Concrete Pipe 2010, 16 pages, by WRI Pipe Committee
This Tech Fact is intended to provide sound recommendations for use in estimating the reinforcing steel in a concrete pipe. The information in tables in the book were compiled using the published reinforcing designs of the American Society for testing and materials "Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe", Designation C 76.
TF 311M-03: (D) Metric Welded Wire Reinforcement for Concrete Pipe 1995, 6 pages, by WRI Pipe Committee
Contained in this Tech Fact are the principles of reinforcement and why it's needed in concrete pipe design. D-Load requirements and manufacturing specifications are explained. Examples show metric styles of WWR compared to in-lb styles. Other tables show Canadian Standards, conversion factors, common pipe WWR wire spacings, and common wire and dimensional properties for metric sizes as well as in-lb sizes.
TF 700-R-07 (WRI/CRSI 81): Design of Slab-on-Ground Foundations- Update included
Original 1981, 36 pages, Update - 8 pages
A design and construction aid specified by many model, local, and state code bodies. It's used by many testing and inspection agencies. It contains material to detail slab-on-ground and supporting concrete structures on soft or expansive soils, prevalent in many parts of the country.
TF 702-R-08: Supports Are Needed for Long-Term Performance of Welded Wire Reinforcement In Slabs-On-Grade Updated 2008, 6 pages
The questions of "why" and "where" supports are necessary are covered in this publication. Types of supports for WWR and the influence of the sub-base conditions on their selection are addressed. Suggested spacings of supports are furnished to show the different spacings when wide spaced WWR (step-through styles) is specified vs. the smaller spaced styles.
TF 704-R-03: High Strength Welded Wire Reinforcement Compared with Rebar 1995, 2 pages
This Tech Fact shows an actual distribution facility project that saved considerable costs on the placing of WWR compared with rebar. The high strength WWR saved material costs alone to convince the owner and contractor to use WWR. The contractor's statements give credence to the importance and viability of the use of WWR over rebar in concrete paving, parking lots, and slabs-on-ground.
TF 705-R-03: Innovative Ways to Reinforce Slabs-on-Ground 1996, 8 pages, by Robert B. Anderson, P.E.
There are five design procedures with examples developed by Mr. Anderson, a leading consultant on the subject of reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground. The publication has derivations of equations and design examples that show how as steel area increases more crack width control is gained. The subgrade drag theory is explained here in more detail, emphasizing the procedure for residential and light commercial projects. The other four procedures should be used for various structural applications where wheel loads and rack loads play a greater role in the design of the slab. There is a table of cross-sectional areas and weights for different spacings of wire (from 3" to 16").
WRI Case Studies
CS 1-2005: Case Study - Properly Placed WWR Provides Quality Concrete Sidewalks. 2005, 2 pages
A case study describes the use of structural welded wire reinforcement in the construction of sidewalks in New York City.
CS 1-2008: Built to Last 2008, 4 pages
From Potatoes to the Bakery to the Laundry – Some Turn to Welded Wire Reinforcement Wall Panel Solutions.
CS 3-2018: Bridges, Walkways, and Approaches 2018, 4 pages
Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement Proves a Superior Choice in the Transportation Sector.
CS 193-R-03: Case Study - Floor Framing - One Peachtree Office Tower, Atlanta, Georgia 1992, 2 pages Value engineering of the concrete floor framing system allowed a four-day/floor cycle that kept the tower on schedule.
CS 194-R-03: Case Study - Multiple Uses, One Project - Jacob's Field, Cleveland Indians Ball Park, Cleveland, Ohio 1994, 4 pages
Examines the use of 490 tons of high strength WWR for paving, slabs-on-grade, supported corridor slabs, precast units, and beam shear cages. Value engineering played a big role in saving money and helped construction stay ahead of schedule. Cost savings of $125,000 were realized by reduced forming turnover time and placing time. By using high strength WWR over conventional strength reinforcing, 15% of the material costs were saved.
CS 196-R-03: Case Study - Precasting - Modular Precast Cells for Correctional Facilities 1997, 4 pages
This publication presents a composite of 3 case histories of precast concrete prison cell projects by 3 different precast producers. It discusses time and cost savings when precast modules are designed into the facilities. How high strength welded wire reinforcement also saves money. The case history is a pictorial review of how the modules are made and offer a time frame of the manufacturing process.
CS 198-R-03: Case Study - Concrete Bridges with Structural High Strength Welded Wire Reinforcement 1998, 6 pages
Discusses the research by the University of Nebraska on precast/prestressed "I" girders and some actual designs and the construction utilizing that research. Also, some recent innovations in the use of structural welded wire reinforcement in bridge deck replacements. Some precast bridge rail members, median barriers, and sound walls are shown in the case studies.
CS 199-R-03: Case Study - Precast Pipe - (D) Welded Wire Reinforced Precast Concrete Pipeline for Louisville, KY, International Airport Authority1999, 6 pagesThe Louisville International Airport is the 8th largest air cargo airport in the world and 5th largest in the U.S. With the recent paving expansion of the 3000 acre facility, it necessitated a closed discharge system capable of handling over 1,200 cubic feet per second of stormwater. Approval was given by the airport authority to allow 96" and 108" diameter precast concrete pipe as an alternate solution to cast in place concrete boxes. The engineer's calculations and sketches are included in this Tech Fact.
CS 294-R-03: (D) Case Study - Slabs - Kohl's Corporation Distribution Center, Findley, Ohio 1994, 4 pages
Case history about a 756,000 square foot industrial facility where slabs were placed in less than a month. Fibers were suggested as a substitution to the WWR. The substitution was refused since the owner desired structural integrity if the substrate failed. The result is quality WWR reinforced slabs-on-grade and paving that are free of any settlement and have an exceptional surface quality with minimal intermediate cracks. No curling and displacement are evident at saw cut contraction joints.
CS 298-R-03: Case Study - Tunnel Construction - Washington DC's Metro Tunnel: An Advancement in Concrete Reinforcement 1998, 2 pages
Washington, DC's Metro subway is among the world's highly regarded public transit systems. The 1.1-mile extension of the green line utilizes high strength welded wire reinforcement equivalent to the area of steel of #6 @ 6" as primary reinforcement and #4 @ 16" temperature/shrinkage reinforcement. The welded wire sheets were shipped radius bent.
CS 299-R-03: Case Study - Research Results - High Performance Can Be Achieved with Welded Wire Reinforcement in Paving & Slabs when Proper Cover Exists 1999, 4 pages
A case study of 3 projects that were researched by Prof. Luke Snell includes two industrial slabs - one 3 years and the other 11 years old. The Il DOT interstate paving study is over 30 years old. The study shows that when properly placed and supported WWR exists, high quality and long term performance can be expected.
Case Study, New Zealand: Marlborough Park Skateboard Bowl, North Shore City, Aukland. 2003, 2 pages
WRI would like to thank the Welded Wire Reinforcement Marketing Development Alliance of New Zealand for allowing WRI to include this case study on the WRI website. WWRMDA is the owner and holder of copyright to this case study. The case study describes the use of structural welded wire in the construction of a 900 square meter skateboard bowl.
Case Study, New Zealand: Palms Shopping Centre, Redevelopment, Christchurch. Additional Photo. 2003, 2 pages
WRI would like to thank the Welded Wire Reinforcement Marketing Development Alliance of New Zealand for allowing WRI to include this case study on the WRI website. WWRMDA is the owner and holder of copyright to this case study. The case study focuses on the use of 1800 sheets of 665 WWR, covering an area of over 25,000 square meters, were used for supermarket flooring and car parking.
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