Detail, Design, and Specification
Engineering and Contracting - Perspectives on the Use of Welded Wire Reinforcement in Tilt-Up Concrete Wall Panels
The Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI) sat down with professionals from both sides of the table to get perspectives and insights on WWR as the preferred reinforcement solution for tilt-up wall panel projects.
A Sample Specification for Welded Wire Reinforcement
WWR sample specification for use by design professionals in the preparation of the structural contract documents.
Code Reference Tools for the Design Professional
ACI 318-19: Table 220.127.116.11(a) – Deformed Wire and Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement
A consolidated version of ACI 318 Table 18.104.22.168(a) is provided here, showing the variety of structural applications and usage of deformed wire and welded deformed wire reinforcement.
ACI 318-19: A Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement (WWR) Primer
The ACI 318-19 Primer is a quick and handy “cheat sheet” for the design professional, highlighting code provisions relevant to the implementation of WWR in structural design.
ACI 318-19: Quick Reference for Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement
The ACI 318-19 Quick Reference provides for the design professional a compilation of code section references categorized in a cheat-sheet type format.
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (9th Edition | 2020): Quick Reference for Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement
The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Quick Reference provides for the design professional a compilation of code section references categorized in a cheat-sheet type format.
Typical Details and Schedules
WWR.1 - ASTM Mat Tolerances
An illustrative representation of the current ASTM A1064 geometric and dimensional tolerances for WWR manufacture.
WWR.2 – Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Detail for Slab-on-Ground
A suggested lap splice reference for WPWR in nominal slab-on-ground applications.
WWR.3 – Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Detail for Structural Ground-Supported Slab
A suggested lap splice reference for WPWR in structural slab-on-ground applications.
WWR.4 – Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Detail for Structural Ground-Supported Slab
A suggested lap splice reference for WDWR in structural slab-on-ground applications.
WWR.5 – Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Detail for Elevated Two-Way Slab
A suggested lap splice reference for WDWR in structural elevated slab applications.
WWR.6 – Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Schedule
A consolidated general reference for welded deformed wire reinforcement lap splices calculated based on contribution from the deformed wire surface only.
WWR.7– Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement Lap Splice Schedule
A consolidated general reference for welded plain wire reinforcement lap splices calculated based on contribution from the welded intersections only.
This illustrative guide is intended to provide the design and construction professional with a simplified view of welded deformed wire reinforcement (WWR) mat placement in elevated two-way flat slab structural applications. An interior column location is used as an example.
WRI Anatomy of a Bridge Girder
An illustrative reference for the designer and contractor showing WWR’s versatility when utilized as structural reinforcement in highway bridge girders. Descriptions of reinforcement components are provided, along with an explanation of WWR nomenclature. An alternative WWR geometry utilizing structural anchor wires in lieu of hooked curtailment is also presented.
WRI Guides and Manuals
Bending Welded Wire Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete (WWR-400)
A pictorial and descriptive publication on the fabrication of either in-plant or on-site bending of welded wire for column cages, beam baskets, and shear reinforcement for both cast in place and precast/prestressed structural components.
Manual of Standard Practice — Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement (WWR-500)
This manual provides current product information, material specifications, and properties, and lists current ACI 318 Code provisions relating to WWR. Tables and design aids are included on splicing and areas of cross sections for various wire spacings. Two new sections cover testing of wire and welded wire reinforcement, as well as handling and placing guidelines.
Welded Wire Reinforcement Design and Detailing Guide (WWR-600-DDG)
The Welded Wire Reinforcement Design and Detailing Guide (“The Guide”) provides contractors and designers a comprehensive benchmark for the incorporation of WWR into contract documents used on site. It explains by example why (a) the structural Engineer-of-Record (EOR) needs no proprietary-like knowledge in order to implement WWR into their contract drawings, and (b) the protocol-in-use for reinforced concrete design and detailing need not be overhauled in order to accommodate WWR usage. The Guide is best used as a complement document to design and detailing standards publications, creating value by offering detailed insights specific to welded wire reinforcement.
- Chapter One - Introduction and Document Usage
- Chapter Two - Welded Wire Reinforcement in ACI 318-19
- Chapter Three - Manufacture of Welded Wire Reinforcement
- Chapter Four - Specifying Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement
- Chapter Five - EXAMPLE: Shallow Foundations
- Chapter Six - EXAMPLE: Ground Supported Slabs
- Chapter Seven - EXAMPLE: Tilt-up Panels
- Chapter Eight - EXAMPLE: Cantilever-type Site Retaining Wall
- Chapter Nine - EXAMPLE: Mild Reinforcement in a Post-Tensioned System
- Chapter Ten - EXAMPLE: Conventional Two-way Mild Reinforced Slab
Welded Wire Reinforced Tilt-up Panels (TF 204-R-21)
This Tech Fact is an educational tool for welded wire reinforced tilt-up wall construction.
Welded Wire Reinforcement for Circular Concrete Pipe, by WRI Pipe Committee (TF 306-R-21)
This Tech Fact is intended to provide sound recommendations for use in estimating the reinforcing steel in a concrete pipe. The information in tables in the book were compiled using the published reinforcing designs of the American Society for testing and materials "Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe", Designation C 76.
How to Specify, Order & Use Welded Wire Reinforcement in Residential & Light Commercial Construction (TF 202-R-21)
A comprehensive publication that answers many questions on specifications and nomenclature on wire sizes and styles for ordering information. It also has guidelines on placing and supporting WWR. There are numerous examples, data tables, and photos.
Welded Wire Fabric in Concrete Pan Joist Slab Construction (TF 205-R-18)
An informative publication referencing the advantages of welded wire reinforcement (WWR) in both one-way and two-way pan joist construction. Addresses minimum steel requirements, spacing, design considerations, ACI Building Code specifications, and the use of high strength structural WWR.
Design of Slab-on-Ground Foundations - Update included (TF 700-R-07 (WRI/CRSI 81))
A design and construction aid specified by many model, local, and state code bodies. It's used by many testing and inspection agencies. It contains material to detail slab-on-ground and supporting concrete structures on soft or expansive soils, prevalent in many parts of the country.
Metric Welded Wire Reinforcement (TF 206-R-21)
Third Printing 5 pages Converting U.S. Equivalent Customary (in-pound) styles to Metric styles. A discussion and examples of soft conversion technique.
Supports Are Needed for Long-Term Performance of Welded Wire Reinforcement In Slabs-On-Grade (TF 702-R-21)
The questions of "why" and "where" supports are necessary are covered in this publication. Types of supports for WWR and the influence of the sub-base conditions on their selection are addressed. Suggested spacings of supports are furnished to show the different spacings when wide spaced WWR (step-through styles) is specified vs. the smaller spaced styles.
Archive & Historical
Structural High Strength Welded Wire Reinforcement (TF 208-R-21)
This Tech Fact describes manufacturing abilities, applicable specifications and nomenclature, handling and unloading, placing to obtain proper positioning, coated WWR, and metrication. Tables are included to make it easier for converting units and knowing what common styles are produced and determining areas of steel for various wire spacings.
Innovative Ways to Reinforce Slabs-on-Ground, by Robert B. Anderson, P.E. (TF 705-R-21)
There are five design procedures with examples developed by Mr. Anderson, a leading consultant on the subject of reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground. The publication has derivations of equations and design examples that show how as steel area increases more crack width control is gained. The subgrade drag theory is explained here in more detail, emphasizing the procedure for residential and light commercial projects. The other four procedures should be used for various structural applications where wheel loads and rack loads play a greater role in the design of the slab. There is a table of cross-sectional areas and weights for different spacings of wire (from 3" to 16").
Historical Data on Wire, Triangular Wire Fabric/ Mesh and Welded Wire Concrete Reinforcement (WWR) (TF 101-R-14)
This tech fact will give guidance to design professionals, contractors and building/bridge owners on the physical and mechanical properties of older wire and wire mesh and welded wire reinforcement. There are references to ASTM standards that give structural properties used in the 1900s to the 1960s and a table of wire gages with diameters, areas, and weights listed. An example table is included on the nomenclature of triangular wire used in the early 1900s. In addition, a story on the history of wire, wire mesh and WWR for concrete reinforcement and a statement on "This Modern Era" - or where the WRI industry is today.
High Strength Welded Wire Reinforcement Compared with Rebar (TF 704-R-03)
This Tech Fact shows an actual distribution facility project that saved considerable costs on the placing of WWR compared with rebar. The high strength WWR saved material costs alone to convince the owner and contractor to use WWR. The contractor's statements give credence to the importance and viability of the use of WWR over rebar in concrete paving, parking lots, and slabs-on-ground.
Metric Welded Wire Reinforcement for Concrete Pipe, by WRI Pipe Committee (TF 311M-R-21)
Contained in this Tech Fact are the principles of reinforcement and why it's needed in concrete pipe design. D-Load requirements and manufacturing specifications are explained. Examples show metric styles of WWR compared to in-lb styles. Other tables show Canadian Standards, conversion factors, common pipe WWR wire spacings and common wire and dimensional properties for metric sizes as well as in-lb sizes.
Provisions in ACI 318 for Structural Welded Wire Reinforcement (TF 207-R-09)
This Tech Fact contains key ACI 318 code provisions concerning wire and welded wire reinforcement for reinforced concrete. The reference can be used as a guide for design expressions, approved ASTM material references, and commentary to assist in design and writing specifications. The Tech Fact may be inserted in the WRI Structural Detailing Manual -Section 1- and will be updated as future codes are published.
The WRI Manual of Standard Practice (WWR 500-R-16) Archive
The WRI Manual of Standard Practice, 2016 edition
Jointed Concrete Pavements Reinforced With Welded Wire Fabric (WWR 101-82)
A manual on the design, construction, and maintenance of jointed, reinforced pavement.